SAINT JOAN OF ARC
Feast Day: May 30
Patron of: France, Orleans, Rouen, captives, opposition of Church Authorities, radio workers, rape victims, shepherds, wireless telegraph workers, women in the military,
Invoked: against fires in woodpiles, for strength in face of opposition
Symbols: armor, standard, sword
“I place trust in God, my creator, in all things; I love Him with all my heart.”
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc (or Jehanne d’Arc ) is both a secular heroine and a Roman Catholic saint. Known as La Pucelle, or “The Maid” to her countrymen, she is credited with being the galvanizing force who returned French rule to France.
Joan D’Arc was from a comfortable peasant family of five children. Already known in the village as a pious child, the adolescent Joan was at work in a garden when she heard a disembodied voice in a blaze of light. The voice gave her a simple task :pray often and attend church. After time it revealed itself to be Michael the Archangel. The angel told her that she would soon be visited by Saint Margaret of Antioch and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, two ancient martyrs whose statues were ensconced in her village church. In her later testimony, she said the martyr’s voices began visiting her frequently, eventually allowing her to gaze upon them as well. Fearing disapproval from her father, Joan never told anyone about these visits. And she vowed to retain her virginity for as long as God wanted it.
After two years the three saints revealed Joan’s true task: she was to save her countryby first taking Charles to Rheims to be crowned king and then by driving the English out of France completely. She had no idea how an ignorant peasant girl was to accomplish this. By the time she was 16, the voices grew more insistent and ordered Joan to travel to the next town to see the commander of Charles’ forces, Robert de Baudricourt and tell him that she was appointed to lead the future king to his coronation.
Chaperoned by an uncle, she did as she was told. The commander laughed, Your father should give you a good whipping.” He also ignored Joan’s prediction that Orleans, the last remaining city in French hands on the Loire, would fall to the English if he did not listen to her. She returned home in defeat, her voices hounding her to complete her mission. When she told them, “I am a mere girl who knows not even how to ride a horse.” They answered, “It is God who commands it.” She secretly returned to Baudricourt who was unnerved by the fulfillment of her prediction. Orleans was ready to fall. Desperate for any help at all, and troubled by the girl’s otherworldly confidence, he recommended that the future king, known as the Dauphin, grant her an audience. Because the eleven day journey to Chinon was through enemy territory, Joan was disguised in man’s clothing.
Tales of Joan’s seemingly supernatural abilities preceded her. As a test, Charles dressed a member of his entourage in royal robes while he stood among the throng of his courtiers. All were stunned when the girl walked in and immediately advanced towards the real Charles saying, “Most illustrious lord Dauphin I have come and am sent in the name of God to bring aid to yourself and to the kingdom.” Privately, she related to him a secret prayer he had made the previous All Saints Day asking God to restore his kingdom if he was the true heir to the throne and if not, to punish only him for his impudence and let his supporters live in peace. Unnerved, but not ready to accept this proof of her calling, Charles arranged for Joan to be interviewed by a group of theologians in Poitiers. They questioned her for three weeks before they granted their enthusiastic approval, amazed at how such an uneducated person could hold her own against learned scholars. They recommended that Charles recognize the girl’s divine gift and grant her titular command of the army.
A small suit of armor was made for Joan and she designed a banner for herself with the words “Jesus Maria”. Her voices told her to carry an ancient sword that would be found buried in the altar of the church of Saint Catherine-de-Fierbois. When it was easily found, Joan’s reputation as a messenger from God began to spread in the general population. Allegedly this sword was used by Charles Martel in the 7th century in his defense of France against the invading Saracens. Men who would normally not be inclined to join the army, enlisted. Joan insisted that all soldiers go to confession and receive communion. She banished the prostitutes that routinely followed troops. There are many written accounts of men who served with Joan of Arc who declared that despite her physical beauty, they never “had the will to sin while in her company”.
After unsuccessfully calling on the English to leave French soil, the military campaign to lift the siege of Orleans began on April 30. Charles’ commanders considered Joan a mere mascot and thus refused to take her strategic advice. After four days of witnessing their floundering efforts, Joan charged into battle waving her banner. The vision of this fearless young girl on a mission from God turned the tide of the battle turned for the French army. By May 8th the English were forced to retreat and the siege of Orleans was lifted. Just as her voices had predicted, Joan endured a wound during the fighting. They also warned that she had very little time and had much to accomplish within the next year.
At her insistence, all English positions were cleared on the way to Reims. During these battles through one town and another, Joan took the lead inspiring many common citizens to follow the troops. The English were routed completely suffering a loss of 2200 men, while the French army lost only three. With Joan organizing troop and artillery placement, the French army easily accomplished a feat which had seemed impossible to them – they drove the English out of Reims so that Charles VII could be crowned there, as all French kings had been before him. Joan held her banner as she stood next to Charles during his coronation on July 16, 1429. Part of her mission was complete.
Though she was in a great hurry to accomplish the rest, Charles VII became cautious and followed his advisor’s recommendation to marginalize the seer. Against Joan’s wishes he signed a truce with the Burgundians, which gave the British time to regroup. He refused to support his army in an assault on Paris, a fight in which Joan was wounded and forcibly removed from the battlefield. By the Spring of 1430 Joan’s voices told her that she would be captured before the Feast of John the Baptist. This occurred in Burgundy on May 24th . At that time, it was common practice to ransom off important captives. Charles VII could have offered to pay her ransom but instead ignored her plight. The inner circle of his court were discomfited by Joan’s strangeness. They convinced Charles that she had fallen out of favor with God. She was sold to the English who imprisoned her in Rouen.
Since there were no rational explanations for her overwhelming successes, the English vowed revenge on Joan, considering her a witch with satanic powers. In order to destroy her reputation as a religious visionary sent by God, they wanted Joan tried in an Ecclesiastical Court for witchcraft and heresy. Once this was proven, they could then charge that Charles VII was made king by diabolical means and reassert their claims on the French throne. Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais willingly adopted this plot in order to realize his own political ambitions.
Joan was illegally held in a secular prison guarded by men who repeatedly threatened her with rape. When her virginity was proven, she could not be charged with witchcraft. She was interrogated from February 21 to March 17 by a relentless panel of 47 judges, a majority of whom came from the pro-English University of Paris. After an attempted escape, Joan was imprisoned in a cage, chained by the neck, hands and feet and she was forbidden to partake in any of the sacraments. Despite their avid attempts to brow beat her and put words in her mouth, she calmly deflected the panel. These trial transcripts exist today, and are a remarkable testament to the brilliance of her simple answers. Many times, she instructed the judges to look up testimony she had previously given – exact to the day and hour. On March1 she further infuriated the court by stating that “Within seven years’ space the English would have to forfeit a bigger prize than Orleans.” (Within six years and eight months the English would abandon French soil entirely).
By May, the judges had written up their verdict, 42 of them agreeing that if Joan did not retract her statements, she would be handed over to the civil powers to be burnt at the stake. Filled with fear, Joan signed a two line retraction. A document detailing her acts as works of the devil was substituted in the official record. Because she had done as they ordered, they could not execute her and the British were furious. It is not known if Joan was so afraid of the threat of rape by her guards or if the dress she had been wearing during her trial was taken away and her male costume the only thing left to her, but when she appeared before the court on May 29th dressed as a man, she was declared a relapsed heretic. Her masculine attire served as proof of her crime and she was burned at the stake in the town square the next day. On the morning of her execution she was visited by the judges. She solemnly warned Cauchon that he would be charged by God for the responsibility of her death. She insisted her voices came from God and had not deceived her. Her last word, as she was consumed by flames was, “Jesus”. In order to discourage the collection of relics, her ashes were thrown into the Seine.
A reversal of her sentence was granted by the Pope in 1456, twenty five years after her death citing of the unfairness of her judges and the fact that the court illegally denied her right to appeal to the Holy See.
Joan D’Arc remains one of the most popular historical figures in the world. Poets, Painters, Writers and Filmmakers have ensured her role in popular culture. She is the only person in written history, male or female, to command a nation’s army at the age of 17. As a French patriot, she was a propaganda figure in both World Wars. She was finally declared a saint in 1920.
In art, Joan D’Arc wears her suit of armor and carries her “Jesus Mary” banner. Because of her voices she is the patron of radio and telegraph workers. She is patron of women in the military and shepherds because these were her occupations. She dressed in men’s clothing to avoid the threat of rape so she is the patron of rape victims. Most importantly she is the patron of the nation she saved, France.
Novena to Saint Joan of Arc
Glorious Saint Joan of Arc, filled with compassion for those who
invoke you, with love for those who suffer,
heavily laden with the weight of my troubles,
I kneel at your feet and humbly beg you to take my present need
under your special protection (intention here).
Vouchsafe to recommend it to the Blessed Virgin Mary,
and lay it before the throne of Jesus.
Cease not to intercede for me until my request is granted.
Above all, obtain for me the grace to one day meet God face to face
and with you and Mary and all the angels and saints praise Him
through all eternity.
O most powerful Saint Joan, do not let me lose my soul,
but obtain for me the grace of winning my way to heaven,
forever and ever. Amen
Excerpted from the book: “Saints: Ancient and Modern” by Barbara Calamari and Sandra DiPasqua.